Black Hole Database

Contact: Colin DeGraf

Here we provide the complete set of data for black holes in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation run at the McWilliams Center for Cosmology at Carnegie Mellon University using the TreePM-SPH code GADGET.

User Guide (70 KB): Summary of the simulation used to produce this database, the database format, and several sample queries.

Black Hole Database (2 GB): An SQLite database file containing all the black hole information for the entire simulation. Please see the User Guide for more information on the simulation, the database file, and sample queries to get started.

Database Overview

The code used for this simulation is the massively parallel cosmological TreePM- SPH code GADGET3 [11], with the addition of a multi-phase modeling of the ISM, which allows treatment of star formation [10] and black hole accretion and associated feedback processes [6, 9].

Black holes are modeled as collisionless sink particles according to a sub-resolution model which inserts seed black holes (with mseed = 5 × 105 h−1 M⊙) into any halo (found by a friends-of-friends algorithm) above 5×1010h−1M⊙. These seed black holes then grow by accretion of surrounding gas (according to Bondi-Hoyle accretion) and by merging with nearby black holes. The BHs also radiate with a radiative efficiency of n = 0.1, and 5% of this liberated radiation couples thermally with the surrounding gas. For a more complete explanation of the simulation methods and model details, see [5]. For investigations into the black hole model and similar studies using these models, please see [1–5, 7, 8].

This database is based on the E5 simulation run by Yu Feng at Carnegie Mellon University. The parameters used in this simulation are listed in the user guide.


[1] J. M. Colberg and T. di Matteo. Supermassive black holes and their environments. MNRAS, 387:1163–1178, July 2008.

[2] R. A. C. Croft, T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist. Galaxy morphology, kinematics and clustering in a hydrodynamic simulation of a  cold dark matter universe. MNRAS, 400:43–67, November 2009.

[3] C. DeGraf, T. Di Matteo, and V. Springel. Faint-end quasar luminosity functions from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. MNRAS, 402:1927–1936, March 2010.

[4] C. Degraf, T. Di Matteo, and V. Springel. Black hole clustering in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations: evidence for mergers. MNRAS, 413:1383–1394, May 2011.

[5] T. Di Matteo, J. Colberg, V. Springel, L. Hernquist, and D. Sijacki. Direct Cosmological Simulations of the Growth of Black Holes and Galaxies. ApJ, 676:33–53, March 2008.

[6] T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies. Nature, 433:604–607, February 2005.

[7] D. Sijacki, V. Springel, T. di Matteo, and L. Hernquist. A unified model for AGN feedback in cosmological simulations of structure formation. MNRAS, 380:877–900, September 2007.

[8] D. Sijacki, V. Springel, and M. G. Haehnelt. Growing the first bright quasars in cosmological simulations of structure formation. MNRAS, 400:100–122, November 2009.

[9] V. Springel, T. Di Matteo, and L. Hernquist. Modelling feedback from stars and black holes in galaxy mergers. MNRAS, 361:776–794, August 2005.

[10] V. Springel and L. Hernquist. Cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations: a hybrid multiphase model for star formation. MNRAS, 339:289–311, February 2003.

[11] V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce. Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars. Nature, 435:629–636, June 2005.

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Last updated 8 March, 2012