Convertible Codes: New Class of Codes for Efficient Conversion of Coded Data in Distributed Storage11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Seattle, WA, January 12-14, 2020.
Francisco Maturana, K. V. Rashmi
Carnegie Mellon University
Erasure codes are typically used in large-scale distributed storage systems to provide durability of data in the face of failures. In this setting, a set of k blocks to be stored is encoded using an [n, k] code to generate n blocks that are then stored on different storage nodes. A recent work by Kadekodi et al.  shows that the failure rate of storage devices vary significantly over time, and that changing the rate of the code (via a change in the parameters n and k) in response to such variations provides significant reduction in storage space requirement. However, the resource overhead of realizing such a change in the code rate on already encoded data in traditional codes is prohibitively high.
Motivated by this application, in this work we first present a new framework to formalize the notion of code conversion – the process of converting data encoded with an [nI, kI] code into data encoded with an [nF, kF ] code while maintaining desired decodability properties, such as the maximum-distance-separable (MDS) property. We then introduce convertible codes, a new class of code pairs that allow for code conversions in a resource-efficient manner. For an important parameter regime (which we call the merge regime) along with the widely used linearity and MDS decodability constraint, we prove tight bounds on the number of nodes accessed during code conversion. In particular, our achievability result is an explicit construction of MDS convertible codes that are optimal for all parameter values in the merge regime albeit with a high field size. We then present explicit low-field-size constructions of optimal MDS convertible codes for a broad range of parameters in the merge regime. Our results thus show that it is indeed possible to achieve code conversions with significantly lesser resources as compared to the default approach of re-encoding.
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