PDL ABSTRACT

TOC: RAID: High-Performance, Reliable Secondary Storage

1	INTRODUCTION							
2	BACKGROUND							
2.1	Disk Terminology						
2.2	Data Paths							
2.3	Technology Trends						
3	DISK ARRAY BASICS						
3.1	Data Striping and Redundancy					
3.2	Basic RAID Organizations	
3.2.1	Non-Redundant (RAID Level 0)	
3.2.2	Mirrored (RAID Level 1)	
3.2.3	Memory-Style ECC (RAID Level 2)	
3.2.4	Bit-Interleaved Parity (RAID Level 3)	
3.2.5	Block-Interleaved Parity (RAID Level 4)	
3.2.6	Block-Interleaved Distributed-Parity (RAID Level 5)	
3.2.7	P+Q Redundancy (RAID Level 6)	
3.3	Performance and Cost Comparisons	
3.3.1	Ground Rules and Observations	
3.3.2	Comparisons	
3.4	Reliability	
3.4.1	Basic Reliability	
3.4.2	System Crashes and Parity Inconsistency	
3.4.3	Uncorrectable Bit-Errors	
3.4.4	Correlated Disk Failures	
3.4.5	Reliability Revisited	
3.4.6	Summary and Conclusions	
3.5	Implementation Considerations	
3.5.1	Avoiding Stale Data	
3.5.2	Regenerating Parity after a System Crash	
3.5.3	Operating with a Failed Disk	
3.5.4	Orthogonal RAID	
4	ADVANCED TOPICS	
4.1	Improving Small Write Performance for RAID Level 5	
4.1.1	Buffering and Caching	
4.1.2	Floating Parity	
4.1.3	Parity Logging	
4.2	Declustered Parity	
4.3	Exploiting On-Line Spare Disks	
4.4	Data Striping in Disk Arrays	
4.5	Performance and Reliability Modeling	
5	CASE STUDIES	
5.1	Thinking Machines Corporation ScaleArray	
5.2	StorageTek Iceberg 9200 Disk Array Subsystem	
5.3	NCR 6298	
5.4	TickerTAIP/DataMesh	
5.5	The RAID-II Storage Server	
5.6	IBM Hagar Disk Array Controller	
6	OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH	
6.1	Experience with Disk Arrays	
6.2	Interaction among New Organizations	
6.3	Scalability, Massively Parallel Computers, and Small Disks	
6.4	Latency	
7	CONCLUSIONS	
8	ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	
9	ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY	

 

 

 

© 2018. Last updated 15 March, 2012